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What is the discrimination rectification system for non-regular workers?
The discrimination rectification system was newly implemented under the Act on the Protection, Etc., of Fixed-Term and Part-Time Workers and the Act on the Protection, Etc. of Temporary Agency Workers. It was introduced to prohibit unfavorable treatment against non-regular workers (fixed-term workers, short-time workers, direct-employed workers) in comparison with workers under comparison (non-fixed-term workers, regular workers, direct-employed workers) in terms of wages, other working conditions, etc. given without any justifiable reasons. Labor-management council is normally responsible for taking actions against such unfavorable treatment by an employer.
 
Unfavorable treatment does not necessarily mean that non-regular workers and regular workers should be equally treated in terms of wages, other working conditions, etc. In other words,  an employer can treat his/her non-regular workers and regular workers differently given any justifiable reasons including difference in intensity of work, quality of work, authority and responsibility at workplaces.
Can it be regarded as discrimination against a worker if a part-time worker who works less than 15 hrs per week does not have to follow the regulations on leave?
Article 8.2 of the Fixed-term Act states that, “a part-time worker shall not be discriminated just because he or she is a part-time worker.” Accordingly, there is no such difference on the working hours of workers. 
 
According to Article 8 (2) of the Act on the Protection, Etc., of Fixed-Term and Part-Time Workers, it is provided that “no employer shall give discriminatory treatment to any part-time worker on the ground of his/her employment status compared with full-time workers engaged in the same or similar kinds of work at the business or workplace concerned”, and does not specifically 
 
However, the Labor Standards Act states that a part-time worker (who works less than 15 hrs per week) shall not benefit from leave (Article 55) and paid annual leave (Article 60). Therefore, it shall not be discrimination even if a part-time worker who works less than 15 hrs per week does not receive leave and paid annual leave.
Is it allowed to hire a fixed-term worker whose two-year contract has expired as a dispatched worker?

If a fixed-term worker has transferred as a dispatched worker in order to avoid the regulation of the maximum contract period of a fixed-term worker (2 yrs), it is to evade the regulation under Article 4 Article 4 of the Act on the Protection, etc. of Fixed-Term and Part-Time Workers. The dispatched worker shall fall under Article 4.2 of the Act and shall be reckoned as a fixed-term worker with limitless time period.

What is relationship between labor-management council and trade union?
The term labor-management council refers to “a consultative body formed to help improve the welfare of workers and ensure the sound development of enterprise through the participation and cooperation by workers and employers” under Article 3 of the Act on the Promotion of Workers’ Participation and Cooperation. Under Article 4 of the Act, it is provided that “a labor-management council shall be established at each business or workplace which is vested with the right to decide working conditions”, but “this shall not apply to any business or workplace employing less than 30 people on a regular basis”.
 
The term trade union refers to “an organizations of workers, which is formed in voluntary and collective manner upon the workers’ initiative for the purpose of maintaining and improving their working conditions and enhancing their economic and social status” under Article 4 of the Trade Union and Labor Relations Adjustment Act, and it is provided under Article 5 of the Act that “workers shall be free to establish a trade union or to join it.”
 
Also, Article 5 of the Act on the Promotion of Workers’ Participation and Cooperation provides that “collective bargaining or any other activity by a trade union shall not be affected by this Act”.
In case where regular council meeting was not held as workers’ members have not been organized, is it in violation of law?
The Act on the Promotion of Workers’ Participation and Cooperation Article 6 provides that “a council shall be composed of the same numbers of members representing workers and employers, and each number of members shall be not less than three but not more than ten persons”. “Article 12 (1) also provides that a council shall hold meetings regularly every three months”.  
 
The council meeting can be held with attendance of both employer’s members and workers’ members elected (entrusted) on workers initiative. If the meeting could not be held due to reasons not attributable to the employer, it would hardly be deemed as employer’s default of his obligation to hold the council meeting. 
 
Also, as provided by Article 10 (1) of the Act, an employer shall not intervene in or interfere with an election of workers’ members. However, in case where organization and operation of labor-management council is difficult due to workers’ unwillingness to be appointed as workers’ members, the employer may communicate need for establishment and operation of labor-management council, and the fact that workers’ members must be elected on workers’ own initiative, through internal memorandum or notice. And if necessary, an employer may make request to a district labor authority governing the workplace in question for aid in respect of prompt election of workers’ members
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